A platform for efficiently sharing cats
<html> <head> <title>Fancy academic article</title> </head> <body> <h1>The web as intellectual rising tide</h1> <p>As my esteemed colleague <a href="http://example.com/author">Foo Bar</a> has <a href="http://example.com/article">astutely observed</a> ... </p> <body> </html>
Yahoo's architecture provides a fairly consistent and easy to use interface for browsing a hierarchy of roughly 70,000 entries. [...]Rosenfeld, Lou. CMC Magazine, "The Untimely Death of Yahoo". September 1, 1995. (online)
Due to this ambiguity [of keyword searching], information searching is just plain hard, regardless of whether you're dealing with Yahoo's index or the card catalog at your local public library. [...]
Google attacked the bag of words keyword problem a number of ways:
... and won (at least to date)
publication has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record.Atlantic Monthly, "As We May Think". July 1, 1945.
A record if it is to be useful to science, must be continuously extended, it must be stored, and above all it must be consulted.
HTTP and HTML enter the scene:
We should work toward a universal linked information system, in which generality and portability are more important than fancy graphics techniques and complex extra facilities.CERN. "Information Management: A Proposal". May 1990.
The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation.Scientific American, "The Semantic Web". May 17, 2001.
for HTML or RDF, the same expectations apply to make the web grow:Berners-Lee, Tim. "Linked data - design issues". July 27, 2006.
- Use URIs as names for things
- Use HTTP URIs so that people can look up those names.
- When someone looks up a URI, provide useful information, using the standards (RDF*, SPARQL)
- Include links to other URIs. so that they can discover more things.
subject::property::valuerelationships as triples
W3C. "RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)". February 10, 2004. Online
<?xml version="1.0"?> <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:ex="http://example.org/stuff/1.0/"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar" dc:title="RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)"> <ex:editor> <rdf:Description ex:fullName="Dave Beckett"> <ex:homePage rdf:resource="http://purl.org/net/dajobe/" /> </rdf:Description> </ex:editor> </rdf:Description> </rdf:RDF>
<body vocab="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" prefix="dc: http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/ ex: http://example.org/stuff/1.0/"> <div typeof="Description" about="http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-syntax-grammar"> <h1 property="dc:title">RDF/XML Syntax Specification (Revised)</h1> <div property="ex:editor" typeof="Description"> <span property="ex:fullName"> <a href="http://purl.org/net/dajobe/" property="ex:homePage">Dave Beckett</a> </span> </div> </div> </body>
Fatal flaw: almost entirely library-specific technologies
... to libraries ...
MAchine Readable Cataloging (MARC)
245 $a $b $c = Title
02199cam a22004698i 4500 001 123456 005 20131223124722.0 008 130924s2013 nyu b 001 0 eng 020 $a 9780804139571 100 1 $a Burgundy, Ron 245 10 $a Let me off at the top! $b my classy life and other musings 264 1 $a New York : $b Crown Archetype, $c . 300 $a 223 pages, 16 unnumbered pages of plates : $b illustrations ; $c 22 cm
Same inscrutable semantics, more verbose, but usable with standard tools
02199cam a22004698i 4500 123456 20131223124722.0 130924s2013 nyu b 001 0 eng 9780804139571 Burgundy, Ron. Let me off at the top! my classy life and other musings
MARC is still at the core of almost every library system today
|Schema.org type||MARC 21 leader value|
|CreativeWork||All other leader values|
|Schema.org property||MARC 21 field/subfield|
||245/All subfields except w, 0, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9|
||(260/a or 264[indicator 2="1"])/a|
||(260/b or 264[indicator 2="1"])/b|
||(260/c or 264[indicator 2="1"])/c|
(Just a small sample)
|Offer property||Library item|
the modifications [can] be done by those actors who have the best information about their value [and] are best equipped to carry them outSchwarz, M., Takhteyev, Y.: Half a Century of Public Software Institutions: Open Source as a Solution to HoldUp Problem. Journal of Public Economic Theory. 12(4), 609–639 (2010)
Librarymetadata (location, contact information, hours of operation) linked from offers
Articletype and an unstructured
Periodicalextension proposal that supported journal/magazine relationships:
:: isPartOf :: PublicationIssue
:: isPartOf :: PublicationVolume
:: isPartOf :: Periodical